Hiba: A discretionary and immediate transfer of property/funds from one party to another, without expectation of any consideration (iwad) or reward. In terms of Albaraka Bank’s profit distribution model, profits earned are first distributed between the Mudaraba Pool and shareholders according to the respective capital contribution towards the General Pool. From the Mudaraba Pool’s share, the Bank receives a 40% Mudarib fee based on the profit-sharing ratio of 60:40 agreed upon with the depositors at the time of opening the investment account. The Bank and shareholders may voluntarily agree that a portion of their total profit be allocated to a specific account or group of depositors as an unconditional gift (on the basis of hiba).
Ijara : Letting or lease. Sale of a definite usufruct of an asset in exchange for a definite reward. In Islamic finance it refers to an arrangement under which the Islamic bank leases an asset to the client against an agreed rental.
Mudaraba : A form of partnership where one party provides the funds while the other provides expertise and management. The latter is referred to as the Mudarib. Any profits accrued are shared between the two parties on a pre-agreed basis, while loss is borne by the provider(s) of the capital.
Murabaha : Literally it means a sale on mutually agreed profit. Technically, it is a contract of sale in which the seller declares his cost and the profit. This has been adopted by Islamic banks as a mode of financing. As a financing technique, it can involve a request by the client to the bank to purchase a certain item for him. The bank carries out the request and thereafter sells the item to the client at cost plus profit which is stipulated in advance.
Musharaka: Partnership between two parties, who both provide capital towards the financing of a project. Both parties share profits on a pre-agreed ratio, but losses are shared on the basis of equity participation. Management of the project is carried out by both parties. However, the partners also have a right to forego the right of management/work in favour of any specific partner or person. There are two main forms of Musharaka: Permanent Musharaka and Diminishing Musharaka.
Sukuk is the Arabic name for financial certificates, but commonly refers to the Islamic equivalent of bonds. Investment Sukuk may be defined as certificates of equal value representing undivided shares in the ownership of tangible assets, usufruct and services or (in the ownership of) assets of the particular projects or any specified investment activity.